Indonesia’s large and growing population and rapid industrialization present serious environmental issues. They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance. Problems include the destruction of peatlands, large-scale illegal deforestation—and the resulting Southeast Asian haze—over-exploitation of marine resources, air pollution, garbage management, and reliable water and wastewater services. These issues contribute to Indonesia’s poor ranking (#133 out of 180 countries) in the 2018 Environmental Performance Index. The report also indicates that Indonesia’s performance is among the lowest in the Asia-Pacific region.

Expansion of the palm oil industry requiring significant changes to the natural ecosystems is the one primary factor behind much of Indonesia’s deforestation.While it can generate wealth for local communities, it may degrade ecosystems and cause social problems. This situation makes Indonesia the world’s largest forest-based emitter of greenhouse gases. It also threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identified 140 species of mammals as threatened, and 15 as critically endangered, including the Bali starling, Sumatran orangutan, and Javan rhinoceros.

Several studies consider Indonesia to be at severe risk from the projected effects of climate change.They predict that unreduced emissions would see an average temperature rise of around 1℃ by mid-century, amounting to almost double the frequency of scorching days (above 35℃) per year by 2030. That figure is predicted to rise further by the end of the century, It would raise the frequency of drought and food shortages, having an impact on precipitation and the patterns of wet and dry seasons, the basis of Indonesia’s agricultural system. It would also encourage diseases and increases in wildfires, which threaten the country’s enormous rainforest.Rising sea levels, at current rates, would result in tens of millions of households being at risk of submersion by mid-century. A majority of Indonesia’s population lives in low-lying coastal areas, including the capital Jakarta, the fastest sinking city in the world.Impoverished communities would likely be affected the most by climate change