Indonesia has a diversity of ethnic groups and cultures. One of the diversity is that Indonesia has several ethnic groups which are part of the Chinese ethnic group. In ancient times the Chinese ancestors immigrated to countries in Southeast Asia around the 16th century AD to the 19th century AD.
Their main purpose is to migrate to trade and expand the business market network. One of the countries in Southeast Asia that has been visited for trading is Indonesia, which in the past was known as Nusantara or known as Nanyang. The Chinese traders decided to stay and marry a local woman. Some of them returned to China.
Of course, Chinese migrants will mingle with indigenous Indonesians, resulting in cultural assimilation and acculturation. Since Indonesian independence, Chinese people with Indonesian nationality have been classified as one of the ethnic groups within the national scope of Indonesia in accordance with the stipulated law. Approximately, 4-5% of the total population of Indonesia are Chinese.
So, what are some of the ethnic groups in Indonesia that are included in the ethnic group of the Chinese people?
The Hokkien are people who come from the province of Fujian, which is located in the south-southeast part of China. Many Hokkien have migrated and live in various countries, especially in Southeast Asia. The Hokkien are one of the majority of the Chinese population in Indonesia.
Hokkien is actually known as a South Minnan dialect which is part of the Han language. This dialect is mainly spoken in the province of Fujian (Hokkien), Taiwan, northern Guangdong province, and in Southeast Asia, where the majority of overseas Chinese are from Fujian province. The number of Hokkien speakers alone is estimated at 50 million worldwide
Hokkian people in Indonesia are concentrated in the areas of North Sumatra, Riau (Pekan Baru), West Sumatra (Padang), Jambi, South Sumatra (Palembang), Bengkulu, Java, Bali, Kalimantan (Banjarmasin, Kutai), Sulawesi (Makassar, Kendari, Manado ), and Ambon.
The Hakka people are one of the largest Han Chinese groups in China. The language used is Hakka. In Indonesia it is generally known as the Khek language. The language spoken by the Hakka people is the Han tribe who spreads in the mountainous region of Guangdong, Fujian, and Guangxi provinces in China. Each of these regions also has a distinctive Hakka dialect which differs depending on the province and also on which part of the mountain they live in. Hakka / Khek is also one of the seven main languages in the People’s Republic of China today.
Although separated from each other, speakers of Hakka with different accents and dialects can speak to each other. Wherever they move, the Hakka people still maintain culture, especially language. The Hakka language is closer to Mandarin than other Chinese languages. Thus, even though the Hakka people have moved and settled in various other areas in China, they still retain their language and culture due to the habit of moving in large groups and settling together in new places. The number of Hakka people alone is estimated at 30-45 million worldwide.
In southern China, Hakka people are the last settlers on other people’s lands. They often have to survive in poor soil. They are considered inferior because most of them are landless, poor, and are considered less civilized. It was this resistance from other Han groups that formed their resilient, courageous, persistent and steadfast character. The conflict with the indigenous people causes them to become a community that has high solidarity and is closely related. Men have tough tasks outside the home, while women work hard tending the house and the fields. The constant conflict with the indigenous people has made the Hakka people dare to take the risk of leaving their place of origin and immigrating to various places in China and abroad.
Hakka people in Indonesia are concentrated in the areas of Jakarta, Aceh, North Sumatra, Batam, South Sumatra (Palembang), Bangka-Belitung, Lampung, Java, Kalimantan (Pontianak, Banjarmasin), South Sulawesi (Makasar), North Sulawesi (Manado), Ambon , and Jayapura.
The Cantonese are residents of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong Province and the largest city in southern China. Many of the inhabitants are highly educated, and are known for their powerful traditional healing techniques. Cantonese in Indonesia is often called the Konghu language, which is one of the dialects of Chinese spoken in southwest China (Guangdong), Hong Kong, Macau, and communities of Chinese descent in Southeast Asia.
Cantonese is spoken by nearly 70 million people worldwide. According to research by Han linguists in China, the Cantonese dialect is one of the oldest dialects of the Han language remaining today. The Cantonese dialect was widely spoken during the Tang Dynasty.
The Cantonese in Indonesia are concentrated in the Jakarta, Medan, Makassar and Manado areas.
Tiochiu is a dialect belonging to the Sino-Tibetan language family. This dialect is similar to Hokkien. Tiochiu is arguably a Hokkien dialect influenced by the Cantonese dialect. Because, its geographic location is in the north of Guangdong province, near the border with Fujian province. The number of speakers of Tiochiu is estimated at 10-15 million people and spread all over the world.
The Tiochiu people in Indonesia themselves come from various cities in Guangdong Province, including Jieyang, Chaozhou, and Shantou. The area of origin of the Tiochiu is commonly referred to as Chaoshan, a combination of the words Chaozhou and Shantou.
The Tiochiu people in Indonesia are concentrated in the areas of North Sumatra, Riau, Riau Islands, Jambi, South Sumatra, and West Kalimantan (Pontianak, Ketapang).
Hainan is a province in the form of a small island located in the southernmost part of China. The name refers to the island of Hainan, the main island of the province. The island is a major tourist destination for local and foreign tourists because of the beauty of the sea and its beaches.
For centuries the island of Hainan was part of Guangdong Province, however in 1988 it became an independent Province with its capital, Haikou. The language or dialect used by the Hainanese is the Hainanese dialect. The number of Hainanese is estimated to be around 1.5 million people spread all over the world. Hainanese people in Indonesia are concentrated in the areas of Pekanbaru, Batam, and Manado .ayo, get interesting information from Indonesiar.com.