No written evidence was found explaining who built Borobudur and what it was used for. The time of its construction was estimated based on a comparison between the type of script written on the closed leg of Karmawibhangga and the type commonly used in royal inscriptions of the 8th and 9th centuries. It is estimated that Borobudur was built around 800 AD. This time period corresponds to the period between 760 and 830 AD, the peak period of the glory of the Syailendra dynasty in Central Java, which at that time was influenced by the Sriwijaya Kemaharajaan. Borobudur development is estimated to take 75-100 years and was actually completed during the reign of King Samaratungga in 825.

There is confusion over whether the ruling king in Java at that time was Hindu or Buddhist. The Sailendra dynasty is known to be a devout Mahayana Buddhist, but the findings of the Sojomerto inscription indicate that they may have originally been Hindu Shiva. It was during this time that various Hindu and Buddhist temples were built on the Kedu Plain. Based on the Canggal Inscription, in 732 AD, the religious king Siwa Sanjaya ordered the construction of a Shiwalingga sacred building built on the hills of Mount Wukir, located only 10 km (6.2 mi) east of Borobudur. Borobudur Buddhist temple was built at almost the same time as the temples on the Prambanan Plain, although Borobudur is estimated to have been completed around 825 AD, twenty-five years earlier before the construction of the Shiva Prambanan temple began around 850 AD.

The construction of Buddhist temples – including Borobudur – was made possible at that time because Sanjaya’s heir, Rakai Panangkaran gave permission to Buddhists to build the temple. In fact, to show his respect, Panangkaran awarded the village of Kalasan to the sangha (Buddhist community), for the maintenance and financing of the Kalasan Temple which was built to honor the Bodhisattva Tara, as mentioned in the Kalasan inscription dating from 778 AD. This clue is understood by archaeologists, that in ancient Javanese society, religion was never a problem that could lead to conflict, with the example of a Hindu king who could have supported and funded the construction of Buddhist temples, and vice versa. However, it is suspected that there was competition between the two royal dynasty at that time – the Syailendra dynasty who adhered to Buddhism and the Sanjaya dynasty who worshiped Shiva – who later won the battle of Sanjaya dynasty in 856 in the hills of Ratu Boko. Unclearness also arises regarding the Lara Jonggrang temple in Prambanan, the magnificent temple believed to have been built by the winner Rakai Pikatan as an answer to the Sanjaya dynasty to compete with the splendor of the Syailendra dynasty’s Borobudur, however many believe that there is an atmosphere of tolerance and peaceful togetherness between the two dynasty. namely Sailendra was also involved in the construction of the Shiva Temple in Prambanan.

Borobudur development stages

Archaeologists suspect that the original design of Borobudur was a single, enormous stupa crowning the top. It is suspected that the enormous mass of this enormous and heavy stupa endangered the body and foot of the temple so that the architect of the Borobudur designer decided to dismantle this giant stupa and replace it into three rows of small stupas and one main stupa as it is today. The following is an estimate of the stages of Borobudur development:

  • The first stage: The construction period of Borobudur is uncertain (estimated at 750 and 850 AD). Borobudur was built on a natural hill, the top of the hill was leveled and the flat courtyard was expanded. In fact, Borobudur is not entirely made of andesite stone, the hillside is compacted and covered with a stone structure so that it resembles a shell covering the earthen hill. The remainder of the hill was covered by a layered stone structure. Initially built-storey apartment layout. It looks like it was designed as a pyramid with steps, but later changed. As evidence there is a structure that has been dismantled. The first three steps were built to cover the original structure of the step pyramid.
  • Second stage: Addition of two square steps, balustrade and one circular step directly above which a very large single stupa is built.
  • The third stage: There is a change in design, the steps of the circle with a single large main stupa are dismantled and replaced by three circular steps. Smaller stupas were built in a circle on these steps with a large main stupa in the middle. For some reason the foundation was widened, an additional leg was built to cover the original leg and at the same time cover the Karmawibhangga relief. Archaeologists suspect that Borobudur was originally designed to be a single, enormous stupa crowned with square terraces. However, this large stupa was too heavy and it pushed the structure of the building to slide outward. It should be remembered that the core of Borobudur is just a hill of dirt so that the pressure on the top will be spread to the outer side of the bottom so that Borobudur is threatened with landslides and collapse. For this reason, it was decided to dismantle the single large main stupa and replace it with circular terraces decorated with rows of small, terraced stupas and only one main stupa. To support the temple walls from sliding down, an additional leg structure was added to wrap the original leg. This structure is reinforcing and functions like a girdle that binds the temple’s body so that the body of the temple does not collapse and collapse, while hiding the Karmawibhangga relief at the Kamadhatu section.
  • The fourth stage: There are minor changes such as refinement of the relief, the addition of the outer balustrade, changes in the ladder and arch over the doorway, and widening of the toe.

So, have you ever protected this historic area? Come on, take a vacation to Indonesia.

Source : wikipedia


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